Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body.
Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure.
The main types of cardiomyopathy include
Dilated Cardiomyopathy: The main pumping chamber of the heart - left ventricle — becomes enlarged (dilated) and can’t effectively
pump blood out of the heart. Although this type can affect people of all ages, it occurs most often in middle-aged people and is more likely
to affect men. The most common cause is coronary artery disease or heart attack.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: This type involves abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly affecting the muscle of
the heart’s main pumping chamber (left ventricle). The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to work properly.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can develop at any age, but the condition tends to be more severe if it becomes apparent during childhood.
Most affected people have a family history of the disease, and some genetic mutations have been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy: The heart muscle becomes rigid and less elastic, so it can’t expand and fill with blood between heartbeats.
This least common type of cardiomyopathy can occur at any age, but it most often affects older people. Restrictive cardiomyopathy can occur for
no known reason (idiopathic), or it can be caused by a disease elsewhere in the body that affects the heart, such as when iron builds up in the
heart muscle (hemochromatosis).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: In this rare type of cardiomyopathy, the muscle in the lower right heart chamber
(right ventricle) is replaced by scar tissue, which can lead to heart rhythm problems. It’s often caused by genetic mutations.
Treatment might include medications, surgically implanted devices or other interventional / surgical procedures, in severe cases,
a heart transplant may be needed.