Urology is a surgical speciality in involving adrenal, kidney, ureter, bladder and male external genitalia
What are the common complaints to which patient seek urological advice?
- Flank Pain
- Lower abdomen pain
- Testicular pain2. Urinary symptoms:
- Increased urinary frequency
- Urinary incontinence
- Pain and burning while passing urine
- Slow urine flow
- Prolonged urine flow
- Sense of incomplete emptying of bladder
- Interrupted flow3. Blood in urine
4. Fever with chills
What are the age related problems in urology?
- Young age group suffer from urinary stone disease
- Middle age group suffer from urinary stone disease, sexual dysfunction and urinary tract symptoms
- Elder age group expecially male population suffer from urinary tract symptoms
What are the basic investigations done?
- Kidney function test
- Urine routine and culture
- Ultrasound KUB & CT – KUB
- Specific patients needs MRI and PET – CT
How to manage a patient with prostate enlargement?
Patient undergo physical examinations by the urologist along with blood and urine investigations to identify whether the enlargement of prostate due to the age or malignancy or infection. Treatment is planned based on the diagnosis.
How to approach a patient who has blood in urine without pain or fever?
Painless hematuria (blood in urine) is a ominous sign, must rule out tumour in the urinary tract, it involves investigations, CT-Scan and some set of patients cystoscopy.
What are the recent advances in urology?
Laproscopic minimal invasive procedure for kidney tumours
- Partial nephrectomy, correction of congenital PUJ obstruction
- Radical nephrectomy
Minimal invasive procedures for urinary stone disease
- RIRS (Retro Grade Intra Renal Surgery) using laser
- Pin hole renal surgery (MINI PCNL)
HOLEP (Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate):
- Laser procedure done for age related enlargement of prostate, which is the recent gold standard procedure for more than 70grams with less morbidity and a superior outcome.
How to conform prostate cancer? What are the treatment available for prostate cancer?
- Patient undergoes physical examination by the urologist along with blood and urine investigations and undergoes transrectal biopsy of prostate to assess the disease grade (gleasons). Spread of disease are indentified by further investigations like bone scan or PET-CT
- Patient treatment tailored according to the spread of disease
- Treatment options like radical procedures, curable or palliative radiation and hormone manipulations advised.