Kauvery Hospital Chennai performs blood group incompatible Kidney Transplant on a 29-year-old man
First of its kind transplant in Chennai (TN) for a COVID recovered patient
- The donor and recipient belonged to blood groups B and A respectivel
- ABO incompatible transplants accounts to <1% of overall kidney transplants in India
Chennai, 5th August 2021: Kidney transplant generally requires matching of certain medical parameters between the donor and patient, and blood group comes high up on that list. Often, the donor and the patient belong to the same blood group, or the donor could belong to O blood group (Universal Donor). However, with recent advancements in the transplant realm, ABO incompatible transplants are offered in some experienced centers, to prevent longer wait time for patient on dialysis.
Kauvery Hospital Chennai, a unit of Kauvery Specialty Hospitals, a leading healthcare chain in Tamil Nadu, performed a successful ABO incompatible kidney transplanton a 29-year-old man. Speaking on this patient, Dr. R Balasubramaniyam, Chief Nephrologist, Kauvery Hospital Chennai says," A kidney transplant predominantly involves a donor and patient who belong to compatible blood groups. If the transplant is performed with different blood groups, the antibodies present in the patient's blood would react to the donor blood group antigens that are present not only on the red blood cells but also on the surface of all
other cells including those in the kidneys. The antibodies that are provoked may lead to rejection of the organ at the time of transplant leading to immediate failure (called Hyper acute rejection). In this innovation of ABO incompatible transplant, the antibodies present in the blood are reduced through treatments given before and after transplant."
Four types of Blood Group
A, B, AB & O
Antibody present in different groups
A - Antibody to B Group
B - Antibodies to A Group
AB - No Antibodies
O - Antibodies to A & B Group
The patient had recently recovered from COVID-19 and hence theantibodies against the infection were naturally present in his blood. "We
started the treatments of lowering the antibodies, two weeks prior to the
transplant, but the challenge here was that we had to ensure the COVID
antibodies were not lowered significantly making him vulnerable to infection.
Therefore, we worked on providing treatments that lowered the blood group
antibody and some medications to protect the new organ from antibodies. The
existing antibodies in blood stream were lowered through plasmapheresis and
medications were injected through intra venous route (Intravenous
Immunoglobulin and Anti Thymocyte Globulins) to suppress the cells from
producing more antibodies," he adds.
Upon regular monitoring and tests, we found both the donor andpatient to be physically fit, and the antibody count in the patient was idealfor the transplant. "The transplant was successful and donor was
discharged within 3 days. The patient was kept under observation to monitor any abnormalities in Kidney functions and detecting infections. After a week the
patient was back home, and he is now leading a better quality of life,"
An ABO incompatible kidney transplant is a more advanced andcomplex procedure that requires the right expertise and
treatment methods. In this scenario, the team of experts will help the
patient to prepare his body much prior to the transplant, depending on the
antibody count in his blood. Post-transplant care is also crucial, as the patient
has to be monitored for smooth function of the Kidney and also it has to be
ensured that the patient is free from infections.
Speaking on the successful transplant, Dr. Aravindan Selvaraj, Co-Founder
and Executive Director, Kauvery Hospital Chennai says, " ABO
incompatible Kidney transplant accounts
to <1% of overall kidney transplants in India. However, there are still significant number of
patients with kidney failure on dialysis who do not find the blood group compatible donor on time. This technique of ABO incompatible transplant helps such
patients to get the transplant done at the right time, thus avoiding longer
wait time and poor quality of life. Our department of Nephrology-Urology work
hand in hand to offer a comprehensive treatment for patients with end stage
renal failure. I congratulate Dr, R Balasubramaniyam and team for helping the
patient to lead better quality of life."